A common skepticism of the blockchain space is that technology is still looking for use cases, in which exaggeration and speculation exceed applicability. For some, the lack of broad use by consumers of decentralized applications reflects that the industry is still in an infrastructure development phase.
Blockchain and cryptocurrencies will not become commonplace until they can be perfectly integrated into our daily lives. The solution to this for many could simply be decentralized applications (dApps). However, decentralized applications (dApps) will be considered common when they become invisible and intrinsically better than the applications and services they propose to replace.
Blockchain applications are currently being oriented towards the mainstream, and the platforms running Dapps will be the ideal place for developers, publishers and users. This becomes especially relevant in ecosystems where users get value from the applications.
Allowing the main users to experience Dapss without friction or over complication, aims to promote the widespread adoption of this technology. The gaming industry is a clear example of this.
The cases of Tron, EOS, and even Ethereum with its scalability proposal, as well as a handful of interesting projects with innovative technology such as Fleta, Lisk, among others, are developments that push the blockchain and dApps in our daily lives , which will allow experiencing them without problems, promoting the widespread adoption of this technology.
Current status of the dApps
Many dApps are currently being built, and many have already been built. According to the dapp.review website, there are more than 2700 decentralized applications, concentrated in the three main chains for their development, such as Ethereum, Tron and EOS.
Only in Ethereum for example there are more than 1700 Dapps and the sectors are diverse, from gaming to applications such as Liquid to convert ETH to USD, among other uses.
Basically, a whole new market for dApps is being built. As with any market, consumers and users are likely to gravitate towards the applications that offer the best quality at the most reasonable price.
Therefore, the problem of quality control will probably be solved by the free market economy. In fact, the DApp market will soon become one of the freest markets in the world.
Potential challenges for dApps
There are a number of important challenges that the dApps are currently facing, and they are likely to continue to do so for a period of time. One of the most important challenges is that because many dApps depend on cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum, they can also rely on users to understand cryptocurrencies and feel comfortable using them.
Unfortunately, despite the fact that cryptocurrencies are growing steadily, many people still do not understand them, do not possess them and, in general, feel uncomfortable with them. For applications to reach their full potential, cryptocurrencies must first obtain greater general acceptance.
A large part of the world population has simply not focused on this concept yet.
However, more and more people are using the Internet as smartphones and computers become more affordable. The greater the number of Internet users, the more likely cryptocurrencies will be used. In addition, as time passes, it is likely that more and more people will be comfortable with cryptocurrencies and start using them more. This can help the DApp market grow.
In addition to adoption, one more problem persists. The scalability Many of the challenges to create real use cases go through the problems of achieving the holy grail of cryptocurrencies: scalability, security and decentralization.
In view of the aforementioned problems, we will try to give a comparative technical approach among the most popular options currently available in the market to develop decentralized applications.
This distributed computing platform was created by Vitalik Buterin at the end of 2013. Ethereum has its own cryptocurrency called Ether
One of the great weaknesses of Ethereum is the lack of scaling with its current EVM and its consensus mechanism, which has generated a deceleration of its widespread use for the development of dApps. In addition, the platform currently works, does not allow interoperable with other blockchains of higher generation, further limiting its development, amen of the price of gas which happens to be a problem many times.
Currently, scalability is a big drawback for technology, as it is capable of processing only about 16 transactions per second, so the developer community is looking to migrate towards a new consensus algorithm, the Proof of Stake, as part of your plan to achieve greater TPS.
The price that Dapps must pay on average for GAS expenses is 0.0086 ETH.
The goal of Ethereum's 'Turing-complete' programming language is to allow developers to write more programs in which blockchain transactions can govern and automate specific results.
This flexibility is perhaps the main innovation of Ethereum, but the case of DAO showed the weakness of the platform in this aspect.
Ethereum introduced the concept not only of smart contracts, but also of the lucrative idea behind them: dApps
The smart contracts use Ether, which is the currency based on cryptography of Ethereum, with 18 decimals in length and its estimated supply amount is 100 million units.
Ethereum uses the Proof of Work consensus protocol, a derivation of the same consensus algorithm used by Bitcoin.
The blocks are created and added to the chain of Ethereum blocks only when the mathematical equations are solved and thus the validity of a transaction is guaranteed. Although this work test model makes the transactions and transfers in the chain of blocks of Ethereum safe, it is not ideal and has its drawbacks.
Ethereum is based on a consensus model of "order and execution", where each transaction execution must be deterministic, which means that it always produces the same result with the same input and the same logic. At the same time, Ethereum's intelligent contract engine, Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), provides developers with full logic programming capabilities, also known as Turing Complete. These two seemingly opposite objectives are achieved by eliminating non-deterministic language features, such as file systems, network IOs, clocks, floating-point arithmetic, etc. The result is a new specific domain language called Solidity.
The Merkle tree used in Ethereum is more complex than the simple Merkle binary tree. This is called as the "Patricia Merkle tree". Patricia's tree is used to allow efficient insertion / removal operations.
The Ethereum key generation is based on the elliptic curve ecp256k1 and to generate the Ethereum address, the Keccak-256 hash of the public key is taken. .The Ethereum addresses are 160-bit data that identify the sender of the transaction with a 40-digit extension.
Ethereum invented the transaction model "Statement of account". Ethereum implements two types of accounts (contract accounts and external property accounts) in which the assignment of account addresses and the status of the account are associated through cryptographic tests that validate their status.
Ethereum uses accounts to process transactions, while Bitcoin uses unused transaction exits, UTXOs.
Both have the vulnerability to filter a significant amount of private information. But the use of accounts by Ethereum is probably a bit more vulnerable when it comes to ensuring the user's anonymity.
The Ethereum ecosystem is well developed and allows several tools of use such as wallet, network monitor, transaction confirmation and developer community.
One of the major projects around Ethereum is Microsoft's partnership with ConsenSys, which offers "Ethereum Blockchain as a Service (EBaaS) in Microsoft Azure so that Enterprise customers and developers can have a single click in the developer environment of blockchain based on the cloud ". This alliance paves the way for more future offers involving Ethereum.
One of the biggest challenges in achieving a fast transaction speed for Ethereum is to reduce the data and the load that increases in the nodes. Currently each node has to store all the data in the block chain. Therefore, a decentralized storage mechanism that shares the data load could help make the processing of the transaction more efficient and faster
Ethereum is close to implementing its Serenity improvement (Ethereum 2.0). The Ethereum Serenity update will pay the validators to secure the network instead of paying the miners. Because this update will include Sharding and Casper, many people started calling it "Shasper", but in Devcon4 it is now formally called "Serenity".
Features included in next upgrade are:
- Proof of Stake (Casper): Pure PoS consensus
- Scalability (Sharding): ~ 1000x higher scalability
- VM improvement (EWASM): Fast VM execution via EWASM
- Improvements to cross-contract logic (eg abstraction): Faster time to synchronous confirmation (8-16 seconds). Under asynchronous model, you should be able to treat 1 block as close to final.
- Improvements to protocol economics: "Economic finality" (10-20 minutes)
"Layer One" solutions such as Sharding and Casper have been on Ethereum's roadmap for some years, but have been plagued by multiple setbacks that have impeded significant progress on the implementation and development front. Even after these improvements, there will still be a need for "Layer Two" scaling mechanisms that provide even greater performance, private transactions and lower transaction fees.
FLETA aims to provide a blockchain technology that can be addressed and also support integration with existing development environments. It is a practically new project that is entering the business of the third generation blockchains and aims to conquer the Dapps market through an intelligent and friendly environment for the development of applications.
The advanced blockchain technology of FLETA and the independence of DApp open the doors to infinite scalability.
FLETA proposed a new consensus model. Instead of the existing model, PoW (Work test, verification calculation process) or PoS (Play test, participation verification), FLETA developed a new consensus model to avoid unnecessary bifurcation.
This new model is called PoF (Proof-of-Formulation) in which a consensus is obtained on the block mining procedure and the blocks are generated in a designated order. This allows to reduce the range of dissemination of the block, which results in a faster generation and dissemination of the block. In addition, the observer node allows instant confirmation and avoids bifurcation. In turn, the network becomes stable and the transaction speed increases.
FLETA consists of a main chain and many substrings that operate at the top, creating a multi-chain platform.
Each substring is assigned exclusively to the corresponding DApp application, which means that the administrator of the DApp application has the possibility to perform functions such as updating and data migration. To clarify, a new substring is created when a new DApp is created. Thus, the multichain system of FLETA overcomes the deficiencies of the existing chain systems.
The ECDSA signature algorithm based on secp256k1 can perform a maximum of 23,000 verifications per second in a parallel processing of 8 central CPUs. This requires a network speed of 1.4 MB / s for this transaction to be transmitted. Therefore, FLETA aims to reach 20,000 TPS through the original block design.
As a final result, FLETA has reached a maximum peak of 15,000 transactions per second in its beta phase.
FLETA through its multi-channel structure projects very low fees in its transactions to encourage the development of the Dapps.
FLETA has created a PoF (Proof-of-Formulator), which allows the generation and rapid dissemination of blocks by using the reward sequence of the Formulator to designate the objective of mining and reduce the diffusion range. In addition, the existence of an observer node allows immediate authentication and avoids block bifurcation.
This means that each Formulator is guaranteed with a mining opportunity in each phase and a different formulator sequence is provided in different phrases, in order to avoid possible attacks or collusions of and against Formulators.
In addition to the multi-chain structure, all Dapps are operated as independent blockchains, so the flexibility of the platform is wide to avoid damage to the main chain.
FLETA provides intelligent contract services, which can be used with current development formats such as RDBMS, NoSQL and Event Sourcing, to integrate with existing development environments.
FLETA basically provides Solidity, Relational database, Contract type of event supply. The future development of technology and the progress in research could allow new types of contract.
In FLETA the Government is maintained through the establishment of block generation by the proposed PoF algorithm.
The mining group consists of A) the generator group of the 1st place, B) a synchronization group consisted of the 2nd to the 10th place, and C) the group on hold consisted of the 11th to the 20th place.
In this way, the block generator can quickly generate a block, and as 3/5 of the observing nodes signed it, a branch is not possible since at least one observer node will detect the branch before it is formed. The integrity of the network is thus maintained by the 3/5 parts of the observing nodes.
To participate in the Formulator group, you must have the FLETA tokens.
The observing nodes will be operated by FLETA first, then operated by delegates later (for example, the dApps themselves).
The parallel processing of transactions is a fundamental technology that updates the high-speed transaction speed. In FLETA, the transaction is assigned to a certain fragment according to a predetermined rule and the result of the transaction is processed independently in each fragment.
Unlike the structure of a single chain, each fragment of FLETA has an independent chain. Therefore, each fragment does not influence each other and is processed in a parallel structure within an independent block chain. The Shard system basically does not share data and, therefore, it is not possible to duplicate the expense in this design. The independent strings of fragments update the complete parallel structure, increasing the processing speed.
The dApps with token issued in the FLETA platform are operated in their own independent chain, not in the main chain. That is, the token economy is updated through several consensus modes selected by each and every one of the developers of Dapp.
Each DApp token can be rewarded independently through a preferred consensus model (PoW, PoS or voting process is included, but not limited to these). The token economy is a driving force of FLETA and its dApps, which provides the motivation for several utility tokens to join FLETA.
The algorithm of selection of balanced geolocational pairs allows the blocks to be distributed quickly and uniformly. This network algorithm is designed to connect colleagues with geolocated equilibrium. The distance is determined by ping, and the clumsiness of the network can be avoided, receiving nodes per group that is generated through distance. The distance of the network creates the greatest possible distance so that it is as uniform as possible to avoid deviation in a certain direction.
The architecture of the FLETA system has a Microkernal system. Kernel is blockchain as Consensus, Store, Generator and is responsible for its operation, so that each chain supports its own account, transaction and contract.
Microkernal has a summary structure 1) transaction, which is the formula actually modified, 2) account, which stores and manages transactions, 3) contract, which carries out with codes.
FLETA recently designed and improved the block structure, which is the core of blockchain technology. Blocks that had 560 bytes in a transaction have been reduced to less than 360 bytes, leading to faster transaction speeds.
In addition, FLTEA adopted the LEVEL Tree verification method, replacing the existing verification method of the Merkle Tree. This, too, is a technological advance that improves the real speed of the transaction. The replacement results in verification speeds more than 5 times faster.
In addition, FLETA employs a hybrid method, which combines UTXO and Account. UTXO, which can be used immediately without creating an account. And the account, which can be used with less execution rate and data. Both coexist in harmony to improve ease of use and efficiency.
On existing blockchain platforms, the main chain included many dApps and the mining group had to operate the main chain and all other secondary chains. This easily led to the overload of the mining group. On the other hand, FLETA employs a structure in which each substring operates independently its own chain, solving the problem mentioned above. Therefore, FLETA separates the function and the data field so that the DApps are not affected by each other, which provides infinite scalability for Dapps.