At the beginning of the 13th century, Genghis Khan united Mongols tribes, reformed the army and was able to conquer almost the entire Eurasian continent, including China, Persia, Turkey, Khorezm, entire Middle Asia and so on.
Closer to the middle of the 13th century all Russian dukedoms were also conquered only not by Genghis Khan himself, but by his grandson Khan Batu. A new state by the name Golden Horde was established with its capital on river Volga, to which Russian duchies fell into vassal dependency and had to pay yearly tribute or taxes.
That lasted for over 200 years. However, with time the huge Mongol empire started to crumble and broke off in many smaller parts. At the same time, Moscow Grand duchy was getting stronger and richer, because Moscow dukes were responsible for collecting taxes from all the Russian lands and part of these taxes remained in Moscow treasuries.
In the middle of the fifteen’s century, the Great Duke of Moscow Ivan the Third, was able to unify many Russian lands and in 1472 stopped paying taxes to the Golden Horde.
Khan Akhmat, who at the time was the chieftain of the Golden Horde, many times demanded the tribute, threatening Ivan with the full-scale invasion.
Ivan evaded the direct answer but didn’t pay. Finally, in 1480 Khan Akhmat lead the retaliatory invasion force to Russia, to once again bring Russia to complete obedience.
In the meanwhile, Ivan gathered his troops. Ivan troops included not only Russian cavalry and infantry, but also foreign mercenaries’ gunmen and cannons.
Both armies met at the river Urgа.
The Mongol army stood on one side and the Russian army on the other side of the river. When Mongols attempted to cross Ugra at the fords, they were met with the cannon fire and incurred big losses. They encouraged Ivan's troops to meet in the open field. Ivan didn't want to do this as the Mongol army was still very dangerous.
Mongols threatened to cross their entire army once the Ugra River would freeze.
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