In reference to the article with the link https://www.publish0x.com/pure-organic-farming-inputs-pofi/simona-f1-tomato-variety-why-any-commercial-tomato-farmer-sh-xoledqj that gave us an insight on why a commercial organic tomato farmer should embark on adopting the simona f1 tomato variety. Without any delay we plunge you into the continuation.
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Irrigation is essential to produce consistent yields of high quality tomatoes . Rainfall amounts are often erratic during the growing season, and tomatoes are often grown in sandy soils with low water holding capacity. This combination of factors makes supplemental irrigation necessary for commercial tomato production.
Irrigation studies in the southeast show that irrigation increases annual tomato yields by an average of at least 60 percent over dry land production. Quality of irrigated tomatoes is also much better. Irrigation eliminates disastrous crop losses resulting from severe drought.
Tomatoes are potentially deep rooted, with significant root densities up to 4 feet deep. In Georgia soils, however, the effective rooting depth is generally much less. Actual root depths vary considerably depending upon soil conditions and cultural practices. The effective rooting depth is usually 12 to 18 inches with half of the roots in the top 6 inches. It is important not to allow these roots to dry out or root damage will occur.
Moisture stress in tomatoes causes shedding of flowers and young fruit, sun scalding and dry rot of fruit. The most critical stages for watering are at transplanting, flowering and fruit development.
Several types of irrigation may be used successfully on tomatoes in the southeast. Ultimately, the type chosen will depend on one or more of the following factors:
- Availability of existing equipment
- Field shape and size
- Amount and quality of water available
- Labor requirements
- Fuel requirements
These systems include center pivot, linear move, traveling gun, permanent set and portable aluminum pipe with sprinklers. Any of these systems are satisfactory if they are used correctly. There are, however, significant differences in initial cost, fuel cost and labor requirements.
Any sprinkler system used on tomatoes should be able to deliver at least an inch of water every 4 days. In addition, the system should apply the water slowly enough to prevent run-off. In sandy soils, the application rate should be less than 3 inches per hour. In loamy or clay soils, the rate should not exceed 1 inch per hour.
Sprinkler systems with a high application uniformity (center pivot, linear move and permanent set) can be used to apply fertilizer. This increases the efficiency of fertilizer utilization by making it readily available to the plant and reduces leaching.
Drip irrigation has become the standard practice for tomato production. Although it can be used with or without plastic mulch, its use is highly recommended with plastic mulch culture. One of the major advantages of drip irrigation is its water use efficiency. Studies in Florida indicate that drip irrigated vegetables require 40 percent less water than sprinkler irrigated vegetables. Weeds are also less of a problem, since only the rows are watered and the middles remain dry. Some studies have also shown significant yield increases with drip irrigation and plastic mulch when compared with sprinkler irrigated tomatoes. The most dramatic yields have been attained by using drip irrigation and plastic mulch, and supplementing nutrients by injecting fertilizers into the drip system (fertilization).
Drip tubing may be installed on the soil surface or buried up to about 1.5 inches deep. When used in conjunction with plastic mulch, the tubing can be installed at the same time the plastic mulch is laid. Usually one line of tubing is installed on each bed. A field with beds spaced 5 feet center to center will require 8,712 feet of tubing per acre (one tube per bed). The output rate of the tube is specified by the user. For discussion purposes, however, you can determine the per acre water capacity by multiplying the output rate of the tube (per 1000') by 8.712 (i.e., on a 5' bed spacing a 4.5 gpm/1000' output rate tube will require 39.2 gpm per acre water capacity). The tubing is available in various wall thicknesses ranging from 3 mils to 25 mils. Most growers use thin wall tubing (10 mils or less) and replace it every year. Heavier wall tubing can be rolled up at the end of the season and reused; however, take care in removing it from the field and store it in a shelter. Labor costs for removing, storing and reinstalling irrigation tubing are often prohibitive.
Excellent results have been achieved by injecting at least half of the fertilizer through the drip system. This allows plant nutrients to be supplied to the field as needed. This method also eliminates the need for heavy fertilizer applications early in the season, which tend to leach beyond the reach of root systems or cause salt toxicity problems. Only water soluble formulations can be injected through the drip systems. Nitrogen and potassium formulations tend to be more water soluble than phosphorous and, consequently, are more easily injected. These nutrients also tend to leach quicker and need to be supplemented during the growing season. Thoroughly flush drip systems following each fertilizer injection.
Water used in a drip irrigation system should be well filtered to remove any particulate matter that might plug the tubing. Test the water for minerals that could precipitate and cause plugging problems.
The combined loss of water by evaporation from the soil and transpiration from plant surfaces is called evapo-transpiration (ET). Peak ET rates for tomatoes are about 0.2 inch per day. Factors affecting ET are stage of crop growth, temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind velocity and plant spacing. Transplant tomatoes into moist soil and irrigate with 0.3 to 0.5 inch immediately after transplanting to settle the soil around the roots.
Once a root system is established, maintain soil moisture to the 12-inch depth. The sandier soils in south Georgia have an available water holding capacity of about 1 inch per foot of soil depth. You should not deplete more than 50 percent of the available water before irrigating; therefore, when you use 0.5 inch, it should be replaced by irrigation. Soils having a higher clay content may have water holding capacities as high as 2 inches per foot. In these soils you can deplete as much as 1 inch before irrigating. This means net application amounts should be between 0.5 and 1.0 inch per irrigation. The actual amount applied should be 10 to 20 percent higher to account for evaporation losses and wind drift. The irrigation frequency will depend on daily evapo-transpiration. In general, for sprinkler irrigated tomatoes during peak water use periods, sandy soils should receive 0.6 inch two or three times a week, and clay soils should receive 1.25 inches about every 5 days.
Irrigation can best be managed by monitoring the amount of moisture in the soil. This can be done with soil moisture blocks. For best results on tomatoes, maintain soil moisture below 30 centibars. Drip irrigation systems need to be operated more frequently than sprinkler systems. Typically, they are operated every day or every other day. Do not saturate the soil with water, especially when using plastic mulch. Plastic mulch will tend to keep the soil from drying out and tomatoes grow poorly in waterlogged soil.
Several physiological problems can affect tomatoes. Most of these are due to specific adverse environmental conditions. Growers can do some things to help minimize their impact, but in many cases not much can be done. In addition, many of these conditions are not well understood, so corrective action is not always possible.
Blossom-end rot is a calcium deficiency that occurs at the blossom end of the fruit. It is characterized by black, necrotic, sunken tissue at the blossom end. Fruit with necrotic tissue is unsalable and the damage cannot be corrected. Although the tissue is calcium deficient, pre-plant applications of calcium or post-plant applications to correct the disorder often have no effect.
Blossom-end rot develops very early in fruit formation when fruit is smaller than a fingernail, which is a critical time for calcium deposition in newly forming tissue. Calcium is relatively immobile in plants. Once it becomes part of the plant tissue in one location, it cannot be easily moved to new developing tissue. Further, calcium moves in the water stream of the plant’s vascular tissue. So during hot ,dry conditions with high transpiration, calcium uptake may be high but may not be moving laterally into forming fruit. This results in deficiency in these developing tissues even though there is sufficient calcium present in the soil and available to the plant. There is evidence indicating that un-staked and un-pruned plants are less likely to have this problem, but in Georgia most tomatoes are staked and pruned for ease of harvest and quality of fresh market fruit. To a certain extent, this problem can be alleviated with even moisture during plant growth. Wide swings from wet to dry conditions as well as over watering tend to aggravate this problem. Exogenous applications of calcium as foliage sprays have been suggested to alleviate this problem. Any such application would have to occur prior to visible symptoms when fruit are just forming, but there is little evidence this is an effective practice.
Tomato fruit are prone to cracking under certain circumstances. There are two different types of cracking radial and concentric both of which occur at the stem end. Radial cracking is more common and usually occurs during periods of high temperatures (at or above 90 degrees F.) and prolonged rain or wet soil when fruit will rapidly expand and often crack. This is particularly prevalent after a long period of dry weather. This type of cracking is also more prone to occur if fruit are exposed to intense sunlight. Finally, fruit load may also be a factor, with a light load more prone to cracking.
Maintaining even moisture conditions, avoiding excessive pruning, and having a heavy fruit load will help prevent this problem. Variety selection can also help alleviate this problem. Varieties are available that are resistant to cracking. Generally, cracking susceptible varieties will crack when fruit are still in the green stage, whereas resistant varieties often don’t show cracking until later, when the fruit is turning color.
Concentric cracking is also caused by rapid growth, but generally occurs when there are alternating periods of rapid growth followed by slower growth. This can occur with wet/dry cycles or cycles of high and low temperatures. Generally this type of cracking occurs as fruit near maturation. Even moisture throughout the growing period will help alleviate this problem. Also avoid fertilization spikes that encourage cyclic growth.
Cat-facing is characterized by distorted growth at the blossom end of fruit, often with rough calloused ridges. Catfacing generally occurs when fruit are formed during cool or humid weather that favors the corolla adhering to the developing fruit. The adhesion of these flower parts causes the distortion that appears as the fruit matures. Usually catfacing is most evident during the first harvest with fruit that was set during cooler temperatures. Planting later and using varieties resistant to cat-facing will help prevent this from occurring.
Zippering may be related to cat-facing, only the damage occurs in straight lines from the blossom end to the stem end. The line may have a calloused or crook appearance.
Fruit may appear normal or nearly so but, when cut, the locules appear empty. There is little or no fruit gel or seeds present. This usually occurs when fruit develop under conditions that are too cool or too hot (below 55 degrees F or above 90 degrees F.), which interferes with normal seed set. Tomatoes are self-fertile but require some disturbance of the flower in order for the pollen to be shaken onto the stigma. This can occur from insects or wind, or during the normal handling of plants (staking and pruning). Wet, humid and cloudy weather may interfere with insect pollination and the pollen may not shed as readily. Cool weather will slow the growth of pollen tubes. In addition, excess nitrogen appears to be a factor with this condition. Little can be done to alleviate this problem other than planting at the proper time of year. Hot set varieties appear to be less susceptible to this problem.
Tomato fruit may develop a papery thin area on the fruit that will appear tan or white in color. This is caused by sun-scald, where the area affected is exposed to intense sunlight and heat resulting in a breakdown of the tissue. Sun-scald may also appear as hard yellow areas on the fruit that are exposed. Maintaining good foliage cover during fruit development and avoiding excessive pruning will minimize this problem.
Gray-wall or Blotchy Ripening and Internal Browning
Several different factors may contribute to these conditions. Internal browning may be caused by a virus (tobacco mosaic virus; see the disease section). Silver-leaf white fly has also been associated with uneven ripeness in tomatoes (see section on insects).
Gray-wall and blotchy ripening may occur together and may be caused by a bacteria. The outer wall will appear gray and be partially collapsed. Internally there are necrotic areas within the walls of the fruit. Factors associated with this condition include high nitrogen, low potassium, low temperatures, excessive soil moisture and soil compaction. Addressing these factors may reduce the incidence of this disorder.
Internal White Tissue
Occasionally, a tomato will exhibit white tissue in the cross-walls when cut. This is rarely seen when fruit are harvested at the mature green stage, but it can be a problem with vine ripe fruit. It is unclear what causes this, but adequate potassium fertilizer appears to reduce the problem.
Rain check is the formation of tiny transverse cracks on the fruit. These cracks may heal, forming a rough texture on the fruit; generally these fruit are unmarketable.
As with many of these disorders, it is unclear what causes this, but it is associated with rain events. Heavy rains following dry periods are times when this is most likely to occur. This phenomenon may be related to other types of cracking and may be alleviated with growing conditions that don’t encourage wet/dry cycles.
Fresh tomatoes are the number one crop in terms of farm gate value among all the vegetables grown and harvested in Georgia. Tomatoes should only be harvested when they reach the mature-green stage. If tomatoes are harvested any earlier, the fruit will fail to ripen normally. Since the mature-green state is difficult to judge externally, growers will often take a representative sample of fruit from their fields and cut it open for internal examination. A typical mature-green tomato will have a jelly-like matrix in all locules, and seeds will be sufficiently developed so as not to be cut when the fruit is sliced with a sharp knife.
While a few large commercial tomato operations harvest mature-green tomatoes that will be ripened later with ethylene gas, most Georgia growers wait until about 10 percent of their field reaches the “breaker” (pinking at the blossom end) stage of maturity before harvesting. Tomato quality at harvest is primarily based on uniform size and freedom from growth or handling defects. Appearance is a very important quality factor. Tomatoes should have a waxy gloss; small blossom-end and stem-end scars that are smooth; presence of a brown corky tissue at the stem scar; uniform color and minimum size for the variety; and an absence of growth cracks, cat-facing, zippering, sun-scald, insert injury, hail damage, mechanical injury or bruising. Size is not typically a factor of grade quality, but it may strongly influence commercial buyers’ expectations. Georgia growers strive to harvest only large and extra-large tomatoes.
Harvesting estimation of the Simona F1 Tomato variety is around 10 pounds of tomatoes for every plant. In any case, for any territory and garden, a farmer of this variety can gather or yield 50 to 80 pounds for each plant.
Fresh market tomatoes are harvested by hand. The harvesting operation varies somewhat among growers. Mature-green harvested tomatoes are placed into polyethylene picking buckets that are carried to a flatbed trailer where the fruit is dumped into plastic bulk bins. Each bin holds between 800 and 1,200 pounds of fresh fruit, and the trailer is positioned in the field so pickers only have to walk a minimal distance to reach a bin. Once all bins are loaded, they are transported to a centralized packinghouse where the fruit is washed, sized and packed out. Some growers avoid use of bulk bins because of potential damage to the fruit and field pack tomatoes into boxes. Some growers also combine the two approaches, with field packing of “pinks” (tomatoes that have begun changing color) and bulk harvesting of mature green tomatoes.
Good harvesting management is needed to pick high quality tomatoes. Care must be taken when harvesting “breaker” stage fruit because the riper the tomato, the more susceptible it is to bruising. Harvest crews should carefully place fruits into picking containers instead of dropping them. Research has demonstrated that a drop of more than 6 inches onto a hard surface can cause internal bruising that is not evident until after the tomato is cut open.
Bruising is characterized by water-soaked cellular breakdown of the cross-wall and locular (seed cavity) area. External bruising will be caused if pickers hurl or dump tomatoes too vigorously from the picking bucket into unpadded bulk bins. Bins should never be over-loaded because excessive tomato weight will cause bruise damage due to compression. Harvested tomatoes must be shaded to minimize heat-up while waiting for pallet bin dumping at the packinghouse. Research has shown that bulk bin tomatoes held in the hot sun for just one hour can be as much as 25 degrees F warmer than fruit held in the shade.
Pickers should do preliminary grading to remove decayed fruit from the plants as they harvest the field. This will prevent crossover disease contamination to otherwise healthy, sound fruit. Wet tomatoes should never be harvested, because surface moisture increases field heat accumulations in the load and enhances disease development.
All picking buckets should be cleaned and sanitized at the end of each harvest day to prevent the potential accumulation of disease organisms from infecting sound fruit picked the next production day. Rinse buckets with water to remove soil and field debris, then wash them in a sanitizing solution consisting of 5 oz. of household bleach (5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite) mixed in 5 gallons of water.
The importance of care in handling tomatoes between the time of harvest and shipping to market cannot be overemphasized, since about half of the cost of tomato production is in the grading, cooling and packing of the product. Bulk bins of harvested tomatoes are taken from the field to the packing house, where they are mechanically unloaded in a water dump tank or concrete pit. Water jets convey the fruit by flume onto an inclined dewatering roller belt with soft bristle brushes that remove field debris. The fruit is then dried, pre-graded, color sorted and sized before being jumble-packed into 25-pound fiberboard cartons.
Mechanical damage (i.e., cuts, punctures, bruises, scars, scuff marks and discolored areas) accounts for more defects at the shipping point and in the market than all other defects combined. Of these, bruises are the most common and serious, comprising about half of all mechanical damage. Bruised tomatoes may be flattened or indented and soft; the locules either are dry or, if gelatinous tissue is present, it may be thick and stringy from continuous pressure or watery from severe impacts.
When tomatoes are physically injured during handling, disease organisms can easily invade the flesh, setting up decay. As shown in Table 9, decay due to bruising was the greatest contributor to tomato loss in marketing channels
Tomatoes are scuffed and scarred when they rub against rough surfaces, such as bin boxes, pack-out cartons, dirty sorting belts, or even against each other, particularly when dirty. Tomatoes below about 60 degrees F scuff more easily than warm fruit. Scuffing and scarring are followed by pitting and browning, because the injured tissue dries out.
Tomatoes may be bruised any time between field and kitchen by being (1) thrown into picking box or bin; (2) pressed out of shape in a bin loaded too deeply; (3) dumped too vigorously from box or bin onto sorting belt, or dropped too far from sorting belt to shipping container; (4) squashed during stacking, loading or in transit; (5) handled roughly during sorting in the ripening room or during prepackaging; (6) dumped into bulk retail display; or (7) squeezed in the hand of the customer or between harder items in the grocery bag.
External bruising mainly occurs before the fruit is packed, which allows the removal of most of the damaged fruit at origin. Internal bruising, however, occurs mainly during or after packing. The riper the fruit, the more readily it bruises. Degree of bruising under given conditions is not related to size, weight or mass of fruit in any one cultivar, however, although the latter do differ in their susceptibility to bruising.
Mechanical injury can be prevented, or at least reduced, only by careful analysis of each step during handling and by devising ways to minimize throwing, dropping or squeezing the fruit. Where drops are unavoidable, padding with 1-inch thick foam rubber substantially reduces injury. Avoid drops of 6 inches or more, whether the fruits hit a solid object or each other. Dumping fruit into water instead of directly onto a belt can help reduce bruising.
Scuffing and scarring can be minimized by keeping boxes, bins and belts clean and by packing fruit firmly but not too tightly. A loose pack allows fruits to rotate and rub against each other in transit, which leads to scuffing injury.
GROWING IN CONTAINERS:
Use a large pot or container with drainage holes in the bottom.
Use loose, well-draining soil. You are recommended to use a good potting mix with added organic matter. Plant one tomato plant per pot. Use stakes to support the plant. Place the pot in a sunny spot with 6 to 8 hours of full sun a day. Keep soil moist. Containers will dry out more quickly than the garden soil, so check daily and provide extra water during a heatwave.
We would also want to recommend to you to use our inputs for better healthy yields that are good for both the environment and human life. We recommend that you use our products like Eco Style Vital organic fungicide, Organic plant food universal Fertilizer, and EpsoMicrotop Epsom Salt which is all very vital to healthy yields.
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