Malnutrition is a complex problem, and there are many sciences involved in the war against it: medicine, agriculture, biology, sociology, education and economy, to name just a few.
The immediate causes are dietary intake, disease or both. Diet is critical, and during a disease the micronutrients requirements increase, while the absorption and the appetite decrease.
There are 3 underlying factors affecting the dietary intake:
- household food security, defined by food availability, food access, food stability and food utilization
- care and health-seeking habits of parents, depending on the income and time available, and cultural factors also. Can impact of feeding frequency and food variety. Good sanitation and clean water decreases the disease average time.
- health services, as clean drinking water and proper sanitation reduces exposure to the pathogens and disease risk. Distance and access can also be an issue.
Then we have what is called the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition. Malnutrition is often passed from one generation to another. Starts with child bearing age women, as an undernourished pregnant woman is at greater risk of obstetric complications. More probably she will give birth to an underweight baby, who is more vulnerable to infections as the feeding is not optimal. The infant is also at risk of delayed emotional and intellectual development, leading to growth failure and to a stunted, underweight adolescent. If it is a girl, she may become pregnant while still malnourished, perpetuating the cycle. There is what we call Barker's hypothesis, as evidence shows that children with inadequate nutrition during fetal development are more vulnerable to chronic diseases (diabetes, C.V.D.). And you need to realize that monotonous diets can lead to low intake of nutrients (vitamins and minerals).
My next post will be about pregnancy, breastfeeding, infant and young child feeding (0-24 months).
...get the higher rewards for your investments using Blockfi for $50 bonus in BTC and Celsius.network, use Celsius referral 1235256530 for $20 bonus. Crypto.com is also a good choice at the moment, with the native coin CRO, being cheap to buy.
Disclaimer: This text is also re-published on my personal blogs, such as this one.