DeFi Safety 102: Multi-sig Setups and Gnosis Safe

By Michael @ CryptoEQ | CryptoEQ | 22 May 2024

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Introduction to Multisignature Wallets

Multisignature wallets, commonly referred to as multisig, play a pivotal role in enhancing security for cryptocurrency transactions. These wallets require multiple approvals before executing a transaction, ensuring a higher level of scrutiny and safety compared to single-signature wallets.

What are Crypto Multi-sig Wallets?

Multi-signature (multi-sig) refers to requiring more than one key to authorize a Bitcoin transaction. In essence, a Crypto Multi-sig wallet operates much like a joint-checking account where transactions need approval from multiple parties. This method significantly enhances security by negating the risk associated with a single point of failure. If one key is lost or compromised, the funds remain secure as they cannot be accessed with that key alone.

Why are Crypto Multi-sig Wallets Important?

In this article, we will explore the inner workings, historical evolution, and increasingly crucial role of Crypto Multi-sig wallets in safeguarding cryptocurrency transactions. Readers will gain an in-depth understanding of: 

  • The security mechanisms of these wallets
  • Their real-world applications
  • How they intersect with Threshold Signature Schemes (TSS)

We will also delve into recent TSS research advances and future trends in secure key management, such as threshold wallets. Lastly, we will examine the challenges and opportunities surrounding TSS adoption for wallet security.

History and Evolution of Multi-signature Wallets

Multi-signature wallets have a long history rooted in cryptography. These wallets, which require multiple keys for authorization, have been utilized for centuries to safeguard valuable items and confidential data. From ancient artifacts to modern digital assets, the concept of multi-signature has proven its effectiveness in ensuring safety and security.

In the world of cryptocurrencies, Bitcoin was the first to embrace multi-signature wallets. By introducing these wallets into its blockchain technology, Bitcoin took a significant step forward in enhancing security within the digital realm. This shift involved transitioning from single-key authorization to a system that demanded multiple keys - thus adding an extra layer of protection.

Understanding the Security Mechanisms Behind Crypto Multi-sig Wallets

Crypto Multi-sig wallets represent a significant advancement in digital asset security. By requiring multiple private keys to authorize transactions, these wallets provide an additional layer of protection against unauthorized access and fraudulent activities. The underlying principle is straightforward yet powerful: to execute any transaction, a predefined number of signatures out of the total available must be present, making it significantly harder for malicious actors to compromise funds.

 Joint Account Feature

 The Bitcoin network supports multi-party signature transactions, effectively functioning like a joint bank account but with enhanced security features inherent in blockchain technology. This joint account feature offers a robust framework for multiple parties to manage funds collectively while mitigating the risk associated with single-user accounts. For example, businesses can set up a wallet that requires signatures from key personnel before disbursing funds, ensuring checks and balances within the financial operations.

Escrow Services

In such scenarios, a 2-of-3 multisig wallet is often used where the buyer, seller, and an independent third-party arbiter each hold one key. Funds can only be released when at least two out of the three parties agree, ensuring fairness and reducing the likelihood of fraudulent activities.

Organizational Fund Management

For example, a board of directors might use a 4-of-6 multisig wallet to control company funds, requiring a majority to consent to any significant financial transaction. This method not only strengthens security but also embeds corporate governance directly into the transaction process.

The Bitfinex cold storage wallet stands as a testament to the practicality and effectiveness of multi-signature technology in high-stakes environments. As one of the world's leading cryptocurrency exchanges, Bitfinex manages vast sums of digital assets and employs a robust 3-of-6 multisig wallet structure for its cold storage solutions. The exchange stores a significant portion of its assets offline in these wallets for added protection against cyberattacks, retaining accessibility while ensuring that no single individual can unilaterally move funds.

These examples underscore the versatility and strength of Crypto Multi-sig wallets in real-world applications. From individuals seeking shared ownership and enhanced backup strategies to institutions needing rigorous fund management protocols, multi-signature wallets offer solutions that address complex security concerns inherent in managing digital assets. Their ability to distribute trust across multiple parties not only fortifies security but also ushers in new standards for asset control within the digital economy.

 Security Increase through Key Distribution

 Spreading private keys across multiple devices or individuals is another pivotal aspect of Crypto Multi-sig wallets. By distributing the keys, users effectively reduce the chances of a single point of failure. Even if one key or device becomes compromised, unauthorized users cannot access the funds without additional keys. This distribution can take many forms, from multiple executives within a company, each holding a key, to personal users spreading their keys across various secured devices for personal wealth protection.

Backup Strategies in Multi-sig Environments

When it comes to securing digital assets, having robust backup strategies is crucial. In multi-sig environments, best practices suggest storing keys in different physical locations to prevent simultaneous loss due to localized events like natural disasters or theft. This strategy ensures that even in the face of such incidents, recovery of digital assets remains possible and secure.

By integrating these security mechanisms into their operational framework, Crypto Multi-sig wallets offer users peace of mind and an increased level of protection for their digital assets. As threats to digital asset security become more sophisticated, the adoption of such advanced protective measures is not just advisable; it's essential for anyone serious about safeguarding their cryptocurrency holdings.

For further information on multi-signature's role in enhancing security within digital asset management, consider exploring resources such as the CryptoEQ dictionary on Multi-Signature (Multisig), which provides insight into this critical aspect of cryptocurrency infrastructure.

Features of Gnosis Safe

Gnosis Safe stands out as a formally verified, battle-tested smart contract multisig wallet. It is widely adopted by leading protocols to safeguard their treasuries, supporting a broad range of standards including ETH, ERC-20, and ERC-721. Gnosis Safe’s robust architecture requires multiple keyholders to confirm transactions, which can be a combination of hardware wallets, EOA-based wallets, and paper wallets.

Configurations and Usage

A typical configuration, such as the “2 of 5” scheme, necessitates two out of five designated wallets to sign off on a transaction. This setup could include various forms of wallets like a Metamask wallet on a dedicated computer, two different hardware wallets stored separately, and a seed phrase securely stored on a CryptoSteel.

Strategic Advantages of Using Multisig

Multisig wallets like Gnosis Safe offer significant benefits:

Transaction Simulation: Users can simulate transactions via platforms like Tenderly to preview outcomes like balance updates or token transfers before final approval. This feature is particularly valuable if the hot wallet is compromised, allowing users to verify transaction integrity through a secondary device.

Social Recovery and Estate Planning: Gnosis Safe facilitates recovery and inheritance solutions. For instance, if a disaster occurs, users can recover their assets through alternative wallets and devices specified in their multisig configuration. Furthermore, users can plan for estate distribution by assigning one key to an heir and another in a secure location, such as a bank safe deposit box.

Working with Anonymity: Gnosis Safe supports anonymous collaborations by enabling a multisig address to automatically collect revenue from smart contracts, with funds accessible only through a required quorum of signatories.

Implementing Gnosis Safe

Users should adhere to detailed guidelines and perform test transactions to ensure familiarity and security. Gnosis Safe's interface allows for easy setup of signatories and transaction quorum requirements, suitable for both business and personal use.

For more complex interactions like using DeFi protocols, multisig approval is necessary for each transaction phase, making Gnosis Safe ideal for securing less frequently adjusted DeFi positions. The wallet’s architecture is designed for deep security measures, supported by a substantial bug bounty and rigorous audits by reputable firms.

For users valuing privacy and decentralization, the self-hosted "Eternal Safe" offers an alternative to the centralized Gnosis Safe interface. This version eliminates tracking and backend dependencies, prioritizing transaction confidentiality.


Gnosis Safe provides a sophisticated and secure platform for managing digital assets through a multisig configuration. Its ability to simulate transactions, combined with recovery options and comprehensive security measures, makes it an indispensable tool for advanced cryptocurrency users and organizations aiming to safeguard their digital treasures securely.

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Michael @ CryptoEQ
Michael @ CryptoEQ

I am a Co-Founder and Lead Analyst at CryptoEQ. Gain the market insights you need to grow your cryptocurrency portfolio. Our team's supportive and interactive approach helps you refine your crypto investing and trading strategies.


Gain the market insights you need to grow your cryptocurrency portfolio. Our team's supportive and interactive approach helps you refine your crypto investing and trading strategies.

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