DeFi 103: Intents and the Future of DEXs

By Michael @ CryptoEQ | CryptoEQ | 14 Dec 2023

You are reading an excerpt from our free but shortened abridged report! While still packed with incredible research and data, for just $20/month you can upgrade to our FULL library of 50+ reports (including this one) and complete industry-leading analysis on the top crypto assets. 


Becoming a Premium member means enjoying all the perks of a Basic membership PLUS:

  • Full-length CORE Reports: More technical, in-depth research, actionable insights, and potential market alpha for serious crypto users
  • Early access to future CORE ratings: Being early is sometimes just as important as being right!
  • Premium Member CORE+ Reports: Coverage on the top issues pertaining to crypto users like bridge security, layer two solutions, DeFi plays, and more
  • CORE report Audio playback: Don’t want to read? No problem! Listen on the go.



In the evolving landscape of decentralized finance (DeFi), decentralized exchanges (DEXs) have served as the cornerstone for on-chain trading, facilitating asset swaps with their liquidity pools. However, their role is undergoing a significant transformation as the market matures. The emergence of market leaders has signaled a shift toward protocols that are more intent-centric, which are poised to define the future trajectory of on-chain trading.

Traditionally, DEXs have been challenged by liquidity constraints, which can result in substantial slippage, thereby eroding the cost-effectiveness of trades. To mitigate this issue, DEX aggregators have come into play. By pooling liquidity from various DEXs, they optimize trade routes, offering users improved pricing and reduced slippage through innovative techniques like order splitting and multi-hop swaps. Order splitting disseminates a trade across several liquidity providers, diluting the impact on any single source, while multi-hop swaps route transactions through intermediary tokens to secure the most favorable exchange rates.

Yet, the efficacy of these aggregators hinges on the sophistication of their pathfinding algorithms, and there is considerable variance in their performance. In response to this variability, the concept of meta-DEX aggregators has been introduced. These platforms function as "aggregators of aggregators," selecting the optimal paths across a multitude of DEX aggregators to maximize the efficiency of the swap for the user.

At the forefront of this innovation are intent-centric protocols. These advanced platforms transcend their predecessors by not only aggregating liquidity but also by employing advanced algorithms to predict and satisfy user intentions in trading scenarios. Through the integration of resolvers and solvers, these protocols offer a tailored trading experience that aligns with user preferences and market conditions, thereby marking a significant advancement over traditional DEXs and even meta-DEX aggregators.

This shift towards intent-centric protocols is indicative of the DeFi sector's progression towards a more mature and user-centric model of operation. It suggests a future where on-chain trading is not only efficient but also attuned to the nuanced demands of its users, providing a more refined and responsive trading environment. As the DeFi space continues to innovate, the role of DEXs is being redefined, with intent-centric protocols leading the charge in on-chain trading evolution.


Anoma's whitepaper defines an "intent" as a user's specific objective when interacting with a protocol, ranging from straightforward transfers to intricate trades. In the DeFi sector, where trading is a primary activity, the development of intent-centric protocols has become a key focus, aiming to streamline and enhance the trading experience.

Expressions of on-chain intent can take various forms, including:

  • Limit Orders: Users set orders to buy or sell at specified prices, with execution contingent upon market conditions aligning with their terms.
  • Batched Orders: Here, a collection of orders is processed together to optimize efficiency and pricing, often using a network of algorithms or solvers for order matching.
  • Cross-Chain Aggregators: These protocols collate liquidity from multiple chains to present users with the most advantageous pricing for their trades.
  • Automated Trading: Protocols execute advanced trading strategies, like dollar cost averaging and grid trading, based on user-established parameters.


Taking UniswapX as an illustrative case, Uniswap Labs' introduction of this platform marks a significant stride not just for DEXs but potentially for bridging across liquidity sources. UniswapX, an auction-based protocol, signifies an expansion for Uniswap and a novel approach in facilitating trades through Automated Market Makers (AMMs).

What distinguishes UniswapX is its hybrid architecture, which assimilates features from the CoW Protocol with off-chain solvers and the 1inch Fusion with its Dutch auction system, enhancing its ability to connect with an array of trading venues. As a Request for Quote (RFQ) system, UniswapX can interact with multiple market venues, positioning it as a versatile tool for traders.

The operational mechanism of UniswapX involves "swappers" who initiate trades and "fillers" like MEV searchers or on-chain market makers who ensure optimal execution. With the capacity to source liquidity from numerous platforms, fillers can offer competitive pricing, directly benefiting swappers.

UniswapX's "reactor," an on-chain module, plays a pivotal role by validating trade execution for swappers. The process involves swappers setting specific trade parameters and fillers fulfilling these signed orders, known as "intents."

One of UniswapX's standout features is its Dutch auction mechanism, which allows swappers to set a starting price above market value, which then gradually decreases until a filler meets the order, ensuring an optimal trade execution price.

Additionally, UniswapX's off-chain routing system exempts users from gas fees during order submission. Instead, fillers incorporate these costs into the execution price, providing users with a seamless transition between Uniswap's traditional AMM model and the new off-chain routing protocol.

Looking ahead, UniswapX plans to integrate a cross-chain swap feature, further streamlining the trading process and negating the need for users to bridge assets themselves, thereby expanding its utility and user base.

How do you rate this article?


Michael @ CryptoEQ
Michael @ CryptoEQ

I am a Co-Founder and Lead Analyst at CryptoEQ. Gain the market insights you need to grow your cryptocurrency portfolio. Our team's supportive and interactive approach helps you refine your crypto investing and trading strategies.


Gain the market insights you need to grow your cryptocurrency portfolio. Our team's supportive and interactive approach helps you refine your crypto investing and trading strategies.

Send a $0.01 microtip in crypto to the author, and earn yourself as you read!

20% to author / 80% to me.
We pay the tips from our rewards pool.