For the first one, we can look at the surface of Mars. Mars has a very thin atmosphere compared to Earth, which is less than 1% of our atmosphere In the thin atmosphere, we have clouds that are formed by the water in the atmosphere that condense to form the clouds. This produces a climate like Mars's - very hot in the summer and cold in the winter.
The temperature on the surface of Mars can reach as high as 450 degrees centigrade at the peak of summer in the southern hemisphere. This can be compared to the temperature on the moon, which is very cold -60 degrees centigrade during the winter and is constantly over 100 degrees centigrade in the summer.
We know this because during summer on the moon takes solar arrays on the lander and orbiters are turned on, and during the winter the solar arrays are turned off.