Rollups vs. Validiums vs. Volitions

By Ether Crunch | Ether Crunch | 14 Jun 2024

There are multiple different scaling solutions, but in this article, three of the most popular will be discussed: Rollups, Valdiums, and Volitions. To make things simple, five different aspects will be focused on: security, cost, efficiency, privacy, and trust. The difference between the three different scaling solutions listed above is the trade-off between those five aspects.


Rollups group transactions and process them off-chain. In this manner, they reduce congestion on the mainnet and also reduce the cost per transaction. Once the transaction is processed, a small proof is sent back to the main chain to verify the transaction, which also ensures the security of the system. There are two types of rollups: Zero-Knowledge and Optimistic.

  • Zero-Knowledge (ZK): ZK rollups simply group transactions and then have a verification, with a small proof that is sent back to the main chain. The advantage of a ZK rollup is the fact that it stores data efficiently, which results in low transaction times and costs.
  • Optimistic: Optimistic rollups assume that all transactions are legitimate/proper, and a verifier tries to find fault with the transactions. Transactions are accepted if there is no evidence of fraud, but the fraudulent transactions are returned if fraud is discovered. Optimistic rollups try to find a “fault” with the transactions, whereas ZK rollups simply verify that the transactions are good/legitimate.


Valdiums are nearly identical to ZK rollups, except for one major difference: data storage. Data in validiums are stored off-chain, while in ZK rollups it is stored on-chain. While storing data off-chain does allow for greater efficiency and lower costs, it also leads to security concerns. With this data stored off-chain, the off-chain managers can do as they like with it. Therefore, a ZK rollup is completely trustless, while a validium requires some trust.


Volition is a balance between ZK rollups and Validiums, a hybrid between of these two systems. While Validiums offer greater efficiency and lower cost, ZK rollups have greater reliability and security. Volitions offer the choice to the user, where they choose between storing the data off-chain or on-chain. Therefore, a volition offers efficiency and lower cost or reliability and security to the user.

If you want to learn more, check out the links below:

What are blockchain rollups?

zkRollup vs. Validium

Rollups, Validiums and Volitions: Learn About the Hottest Ethereum Scaling Solutions

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Basics to blockchain, crypto, and ethereum.

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