(UPDATE) Glossary of Blockchain & Cryptocurrency Terms (UPDATE)

By aortac | aortac | 25 Sep 2019


In this dictionary, you will find an alphabetical order of terms and abbreviations that we often use in the cryptocurrency world. I believe that this dictionary will be a guide for people who are new to us and who will be joining us in the future.

It will be constantly updated...

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https://unsplash.com/photos/GBHhIyWftHs

 

A-Z

Address.:
It’s the string of text that designates the location of a particular wallet on the 
blockchain, that can be used to send or receive digital assets from.All blockchains have wallet addresses in some form, and most take the form of a long string of letters and numbers in a line of text that is difficult for a human to interpret but easily understood by a computer network.

 

Airdrop.:
In short, they are a marketing tool designed to help gain excitement around a project. Distribution of cryptocurrency in
 airdrops is free and you can get these free coins while sitting in any geographical location of the world.

 

All Time High (ATH).:
The term “All-Time High” relates to the highest price that an asset has achieved on an exchange, for the current trading pair that is being referenced.The ATH value represents the theoretical maximum price that one could have sold the particular asset for, and also represents the maximum price that another trader was willing to pay for that asset, during that period.

 

Altcoin.:
Is a combination of two words, “alt” and “coin”. The 
Bitcoin alternative points to the currency category.Many of the altcoins are built upon the basic framework provided by Bitcoin.Current leading examples of altcoin include Ethereum, RippleLitecoin and EOS.As of September 2019 there are more than 2382 cryptocurrencies available over the internet, all but one of which are altcoins. New cryptocurrencies can be created at any time;

 

Anti-money laundering (AML).:
AML is a broad term for laws and regulations put in place to prevent criminals from making money illegally or moving illicit funds. While many illegal activities are targeted by AML laws, some of the most important are tax evasion, public corruption, and market manipulation through methods such as wash trading.

 

Anonymous.:
Refers to 
anonimity. Within the blockchain world this is an important topic. Bitcoin transactions are anonymous to a certain extent, but the transactions are permanently visible in the blockchain. Eventually it will be possible to link it to a person.

 

Arbitrage.:
Arbitrage is the practice of buying and selling assets over two or more markets as a way to take advantage of different prices. That a particular asset may present distinct trading prices in different locations, even though both markets are offering the exact same asset (or very similar ones).When performed correctly, 
arbitrage may be considered as a risk-free way to capitalize on temporary price disparities.

 

Assest Classification.:
This is the basic analysis that will help you learn the general view, contact addresses, project details, investors, token details, market information of the tokens in the ecosystem.

 

All Time Low (ATL).:
Is stands for ‘
all-time-low’ and is the opposite of ATHATL is used to indicate that the price of a coin or the entire wallet of a person is at the lowest level ever in terms of value.

 

Bear Market.:
bear market is a condition in which securities prices fall 20% or more from recent highs amid widespread pessimism and negative investor sentiment.

 

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP).:
BIP is the abbreviation of ‘
Bitcoin Improvement Proposal’. This is a standardized way to introduce functions and other issues, such as design issues. Because of the decentralized nature of Bitcoin and therefore the lack of a formal structure, this system is used to improve Bitcoin in a well-founded and consensus-driven way.

 

Block explorer.:
block explorer is an online service to track blockchain transactions. It usually is a website where you can see all the new blocks that are being created. You can also search for transactions and wallet addresses. The best known block explorers are;
For 
BTC .: blockchain.info     For ETH .: etherscan.io     For NEO .: neoscan.io

 

BlockChain .:
Is a constantly growing list of records called blocks that are linked and secured using cryptography.

The blockchain works briefly as follows; “Suppose that you (a node) computer on your computer (accounting book) is hosting.The two inspectors (let’s call them miners) have a copy of the same file on their computer (the file is decentralized). When you make a money transfer, at the same time, they send an e-mail to both of these inspectors informing them. Each inspector acts in a hurry and checks whether there is sufficient balance both for this transaction and for the inspector to pay the crypto money. The first person who accomplishes this work presses the “reply to everyone” button and adds a document (proven labor) to the answer explaining how to do the check. If the other inspector approves, everyone updates their files to reflect the new situation.

Each block typically includes a cryptographic hash function of the previous block, a timestamp and process data. By design, a blockchain is inherently resistant to modification of the data.This is an open, distributed book that can efficiently, verifiable, and permanently record transactions between the two parties. For use as a distributed book, a blockchain is typically a peer-to-node communication that collectively connects to a protocol and validates new blocks. Managed by to-peer network. Once saved, the data in any block will keep the majority of the network private. Cannot be changed backwards without replacing all subsequent blocks that require it.

Blockchain are safe with design and exemplify a distributed computing system with high Byzantine error tolerance. A decentralized consensus is therefore provided by a blockchain. This constitutes a blockchain potentially suitable for recording events, medical records and other record management activities such as identity management, processing, resource documentation, food trace ability or voting.

 

Bounty.:
A reward posted by a group or individual to incentivize certain work, behavior (such as referrals), or development.

 

Bull Market.:
A bull market is the condition of a financial market of a group of securities in which prices are rising or are expected to rise.The term
 “bull market” is most often used to refer to the stock market but can be applied to anything that is traded, such as bonds, real estate, currencies and commodities.Bull markets tend to last for months or even years.

 

Base Check.:
The method used in Bitcoin for converting 160-bit hashes into P2PKH and P2SH addresses.
Also used in other parts of Bitcoin, such as encoding private keys for backup in WIP format.
Not the same as other base58 implementations.

 

Block Header.:
An 80-byte header belonging to a single block which is hashed repeatedly to create proof of work.

 

Block Height.:
The number of blocks preceding a particular block on a block chain.

 

Block Reward.:
The amount that miners may claim as a reward for creating a block.

 

Blocks-First Sync.:
Synchronizing the block chain by downloading each block from a peer and then validating it.

 

Bloom Filter.:
A filter used primarily by SPV clients to request only matching transactions and merkle blocks from full nodes.

 

Bulletproofs.:
Bulletproofs are short Proofs for Confidential Transactions.
However, this is costly in terms of storage space, as range proofs need to be attached to every transaction.

 

Coin.:
Is the general term for 
cryptocurrencies and tokens.

 

Cold Storage.:
Is refers to storing 
cryptocurrency on a place where the private key cannot be accessed via the internet. This can be done on a hardware wallet, paper wallet or software wallet in in offline environment.

 

Consensus.:
consensus mechanism is a fault-tolerant mechanism that is used in computer and blockchain systems to achieve the necessary agreement on a single data value or a single state of the network among distributed processes or multi-agent systems, such as with cryptocurrencies.

 

Cryptocurrency.:
Is a digital entity that uses cryptography to secure transactions, designed as an alternative means of exchange to cash. 
Cryptocurrency is a kind of digital currency, alternative currency and virtual currency. Cryptocurrency uses decentralized control as opposed to central electronic money and central banking systems. Each crypto the decentralized control works with a blockchain, which serves as a distributed accounting book, a public transaction database.

The crypto currency is foreseen to have the following 6 characteristics:
1-Decentralization
2-Money and having records
3-Money printing rules
4-Ownership can only be proved by crypto technique by the owner
5-Money can only be changed by the owner’s order
6-If more than one order for the same money arrives at the same time, only one is executed.

It is valuable because it is believed to be valuable, and cannot be imitated, registered, the security of its records, ie accounting books, is provided by almost impossible passwords, that is to say, by means of crypto techniques, and that the money issuing organization is less likely to reduce its value by accident or by accident.

 

Crypto Token.:
Represent a particular tradable asset or a utility that is often found on a blockchain. Crypto tokens are special kind of virtual currency tokens that reside on their own 
blockchains and represent an asset or utility. Such crypto tokens are tradable and transferrable among the various participants of the blockchain.

 

Chain Code.:
In HD wallets, 256 bits of entropy added to the public and private keys to help them generate secure child keys;
the master chain code is usually derived from a seed along with the master private key.

 

Change Output.:
An output in a transaction which returns satoshis to the spender, thus preventing too much of the input value
from going to transaction fees.

 

CompactSize.:
A type of variable-length integer commonly used in the Bitcoin P2P protocol and Bitcoin serialized data structures.

 

Compressed Public Key.:
An ECDSA public key that is 33 bytes long rather than the 65 bytes of an uncompressed public key.

 

Confidential Assets.:
Mimblewimble can be extended to allows encoding multiple types of assets to be traded on the same blockchain.

 

Confirmation Score.:
A score indicating the number of blocks on the best block chain that would need to be modified to remove or modify
a particular transaction. A confirmed transaction has a confirmation score of one or higher.

 

Cryptographic Signature.:
In commercial practice, the validity of a contract is guaranteed by handwritten signatures.
The essence of a signature is that only one person can produce it, but anybody can recognize.
In a digital replacement, a user should be able to produce a message whose authenticity can be checked by anyone,
by cannot be produced by anyone else. Digital signatures are a basic requirement for trust over the internet.

 

Decentralized Autonomous Cooperative (DAC).:
An organization that is controlled by shareholders rather than a central authority.

 

Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO).:
The acronym 
DAO stands for Decentralized Autonomous Organization. In general, a DAO is a system of hard-coded rules that define which actions a decentralized organization will take. DAO has no single entity in charge, nor any directory board and, as the name suggests, there is no centralization of power. DAOs are conducted by computer-encoded rules (smart contracts) and are governed by the collective work of its contributors and community members.

 

DAPPs.:
Is an acronym for remembering the five qualities for effective goals of 
Dated, Achievable, Personal, Positive and SpecificDAPPs decentralized application is a computer application that runs on a distributed computing system.

 

Decentralized Finance (DeFi).:
DeFi stands for “decentralized finance” and refers to the ecosystem comprised of financial applications that are being developed on top of blockchain systems. The DeFi is shifting traditional financial products to the open source and decentralized world, which removes the need for intermediaries, reduces overall costs, and greatly improves security.

 

Decentralized Exchange (DEX).:
An exchange which does not require users to deposit funds to start trading and does not hold the funds for the user.Instead, users trade directly from their own wallets.

 

Denomination.:
Denominations of Bitcoin value, usually measured in fractions of a bitcoin but sometimes measured in multiples of a satoshi.

 

DNS Seed.:
A DNS server which returns IP addresses of full nodes on the Bitcoin network to assist in peer discovery.

 

Double Spend.:
If a malicious user tries to spend their bitcoins to two different recipients at the same time, this is double spending.
Bitcoin mining and the block chain are there to create a consensus on the network about which of the two transactions will
confirm and be considered valid.

 

ERC-20.:
Is a technical standard used to issue and implement tokens on the Ethereum blockchain. The standard describes a common set of rules that should be followed for a token to function properly within the it may be described as a technical guideline or specification. Technically, the 
ERC-20 standard describes six functions that maintain some functionalities and features of Ethereum-based digital tokens. These functions include the way tokens are transferred between addresses and some important data related to the token smart contract, such as symbol, name, and supply.

 

Escrow.:
The practice of having a third party act as an intermediary in a transaction. This third party holds onto funds sends them to the determined location when a transaction is completed.

 

ETF.:
Is an abbreviation for 
‘Exchange-Traded-Fund’, or a listed fund on a stock exchange. This is a tradable product (security) that follows the price of an underlying asset. Examples are an equity index, a basket of certain securities, bonds and commodities. There are several applications for a Bitcoin ETF, but none of these have yet been approved by the SEC in the USA.

 

Emission.:
The act of issuing new coins, minting. In Beam, coins are emitted smoothly, as the reward changes with each new block.
This allows a predictable steady growth of money supply determined by the block reward.

 

Extended Key.:
In the context of HD wallets, a public key or private key extended with the chain code to allow them to derive child keys.

 

Faucet.:
A website which gives away free bitcoins or other 
cryptocurrencies.

 

Fintech.:
The word, is a combination of 
“financial technology”.
Financial technology 
(Fintech) is used to describe new tech that seeks to improve and automate the delivery and use of financial services. At its core, fintech is utilized to help companies, business owners and consumers better manage their financial operations, processes, and lives by utilizing specialized software and algorithms that are used on computers and, increasingly, smartphones.

 

Fear Of Missing Opportunity (FOMO).:
FOMO is the acronym for “Fear Of Missing Opportunity.”
In the context of financial markets and trading, 
FOMO refers to the fear that a trader or investor feel by missing out on a potentially lucrative investment or trading opportunity. It is a phenomenon that is quite prevalent in social media, with the feeds from others often highlighting and emphasizing the positive and rewarding parts of their lives, leading the reader to feel sad or inadequate with their own experiences.

 

Fork.:
A split in the 
blockchain. This is caused by a change in the underlying software, creating two versions of a blockchain with a shared history. It can also be used to describe a separate cryptocurrency which has been split from the main blockchain.

 

Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt (FUD).:
The expression 
“Fear, uncertainty, and doubt” (FUD) describes the act of spreading dubious or false information about a business, startup, or cryptocurrency project. The term is also used to describe a set of negative sentiment that spreads around traders and investors when bad news comes out or when the market presents a strong bearish downtrend.

 

Gas.:
Gas refers to the pricing value required to successfully conduct a transaction or execute a contract on the ethereum blockchain platform.The concept of gas was introduced to keep a distinct value that solely indicates the consumption towards computational expenses on the Ethereum network.Ethereum miners, who perform all the important tasks of verifying and processing a transaction, are awarded this particular fee for their computational services.

 

Gas Limit.:
The term 
gas limit refers to the maximum price a cryptocurrency user is willing to pay when sending a transaction, or performing a smart contract function, in the ethereum blockchain. These fees are calculated in gas unit, and the gas limit defines the maximum value that the transaction or function can “charge” or take from the user. As such, the gas limit works as a security mechanism that prevents high fees from being incorrectly charged due to a bug or error in a smart contract.

 

Gwei.:
The term 
Gwei refers to a small denomination of ether (ETH), which is the native currency of the Ethereum blockchain. Simply put, gas is the pricing mechanism used on the Ethereum network. Such a mechanism is responsible for calculating the fees when users perform a transaction or execute a smart contract operation.

 

Genesis Block.:
The first block in the Bitcoin block chain.

 

Halving.:
In the cryptocurrency space, the term halving refers to a process that reduces the issuance rate of new coins. More precisely, 
halving is the periodical reduction of the block subsidy provided to miners. The halving ensures that a crypto asset will follow a steady issuance rate until its maximum supply is eventually reached.

 

Hashing.:
Hashing is a method of cryptography that converts any form of data into a unique string of text. A hash is designed to act as a one-way function you can put data into a hashing algorithm and get a unique string,but if you come upon a new hash, you cannot decipher the input data it represents. Hashing is a mathematical operation that is easy to perform, but extremely difficult to reverse.The most widely used hashing functions are MD5, SHA1 and SHA-256.

 

Hash Rate.:
hash rate in blockchain and cryptocurrency operations is defined as the number of hash operations done in a given amount of time, or the speed of a miner’s performance.

 

HODL.:
Is a term which stands for 
‘’Hold On for Dear Life’’. Initially, it appeared in the Bitcoin talk forum in 2013 in a post of the user who tried to say that he was holding BTC despite a sharp price collapse. Since that time this misspelled word conveys an intention to hold on to a cryptocurrency even if the market goes against you.

 

Hard Fork.:
A permanent divergence in the block chain, commonly occurs when non-upgraded nodes can’t validate blocks created by
upgraded nodes that follow newer consensus rules.

 

Hardened Extended Key.:
A variation on HD wallet extended keys where only the hardened extended private key can derive child keys.
This prevents compromise of the chain code plus any private key from putting the whole wallet at risk.

 

HD Protocol.:
The Hierarchical Deterministic (HD) key creation and transfer protocol (BIP32), which allows creating child keys
from parent keys in a hierarchy. Wallets using the HD protocol are called HD wallets.

 

HD Wallet Seed.:
A potentially-short value used as a seed to generate the master private key and master chain code for an HD wallet.

 

Header Chain.:
A chain of block headers with each header linking to the header that preceded it; the most-difficult-to-recreate chain
is the best header chain.

 

High Priority Transaction.:
Transactions that don’t have to pay a transaction fee because their inputs have been idle long enough to accumulated
large amounts of priority. Note: miners choose whether to accept free transactions.

 

ICO.:
An 
‘’Initial Coin Offering’’, also commonly referred to as an ICO, is a fundraising mechanism in which new projects sell their underlying crypto tokens in exchange for bitcoin and ether. ICOs are easy to structure because of technologies like the ERC20 Token Standard, which abstracts a lot of the development process necessary to create a new cryptographic asset.

 

IEO.:
An 
‘’Initial Exchange Offering’’, commonly referred to as an IEO, is a fundraising event that is administered by an exchange.For a user, an IEO is easy to participate in as they don’t need to manage on-chain transactions with different wallets on different blockchains. The exchange is staking its reputation behind the projects on its platform, offering a higher degree of trust behind the project.

 

Initial Block Download.:
The process used by a new node (or long-offline node) to download a large number of blocks to catch up to the tip of
the best block chain.

 

Input.:
An input in a transaction which contains three fields: an outpoint, a signature script, and a sequence number.
The outpoint references a previous output and the signature script allows spending it.

 

Internal Byte Order.:
The standard order in which hash digests are displayed as strings—the same format used in serialized blocks and transactions.

 

Inventory.:
A data type identifier and a hash; used to identify transactions and blocks available for download through the Bitcoin P2P network.

 

Know Your Customer (KYC).:
Is refers to a process that banks and other financial institutions use to gather 
identifying data and contact information from current and potential customers. Its purpose is to prevent fraud, money laundering, and other illicit activity, as well as the misuse of financial accounts.

 

Lightning Network.:
The 
Lightning Network is a “layer two” protocol for Bitcoin, specifically designed for cheap, fast and private payments. As an overlay network consisting of payment channels, Lightning payments are not recorded on Bitcoin’s blockchain only channel-funding transactions and channel-closing transactions are. Lightning users no longer need to wait for confirmations on the bitcoin blockchain. Transactions are instant.

 

Locktime.:
Part of a transaction which indicates the earliest time or earliest block when that transaction may be added to the block chain.

 

Market Cap.:
Market capitalization refers to the total dollar market value of a company’s outstanding shares. Commonly referred to as “market cap” it is calculated by multiplying a company’s shares outstanding by the current market price of one share. The investment community uses this figure to determine a company’s size, as opposed to using sales or total asset figures.Using market capitalization to show the size of a company is important because company size is a basic determinant of various characteristics in which investors are interested, including risk. September 252019 cryptocurrency marketcap .: $224,384,419,700

 

MEW.:
Is the abbreviation for 
MyEtherWallet. This is one of the best known wallets to store.

 

Miner.:
A ‘
miner’ is a person or organisation that uses computing power (CPU, GPU or ASIC) required to find the next blockchain block. Once the answer is found, a new ‘block’ is generated, in which a number of transactions are permanently stored. The miner is rewarded with the predefined number of cryptocurrencies. Usually this is complemented with the transaction costs, which are paid by the user.

 

Mining.:
Is the process through which 
cryptocurrency transactions are gathered, verified and recorded into a digital ledger known as blockchain. The work done by miners is essential for maintaining the integrity of the network and is also responsible for introducing new coins into the system.

 

Multisig.:
A pubkey script that provides n number of pubkeys and requires the corresponding signature script provide m minimum number
signatures corresponding to the provided pubkeys.

 

nBits.:
The target is the threshold below which a block header hash must be in order for the block to be valid, and nBits is the
encoded form of the target threshold as it appears in the block header.

 

Network Difficulty.:
How difficult it is to find a block relative to the difficulty of finding the easiest possible block.

 

Node.:
A computer that connects to the Bitcoin network.

 

Null Data Transaction.:
A transaction type relayed and mined by default in Bitcoin and later that adds arbitrary data to a provably unspendable
pubkey script that full nodes don’t have to store in their UTXO database.

 

Opcode.:
Operation codes from the Bitcoin Script language which push data or perform functions within a pubkey script or signature script.

 

Output.:
An output in a transaction which contains two fields: a value field for transferring zero or more satoshis and a pubkey script
for indicating what conditions must be fulfilled for those satoshis to be further spent.

 

Phishing.:
Is one of the most wide-spread and common cyber attack technique.
It is a type of social engineering attack that involves psychological manipulation and relies on human failures. A 
phishing attack happens when a malicious actor poses as a reputable entity or business in order to deceive people and collect their sensitivedata, such as credit card detailsusernames, and passwords.

 

Portfolio.:
In the crypto space, the word bag refers to the coins and tokens one is holding as part of their portfolio. The term is used to describe a significant amount of a particular cryptocurrency.

 

Proof of Stake (PoS).:
Is a type of consensus algorithm by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus. In 
PoS-based cryptocurrencies the creator of the next block is chosen via various combinations of random selection and wealth or age (i.e., the stake). In contrast, the algorithm of proof-of-work based cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin uses mining; that is, the solving of computationally intensive puzzles to validate transactions and create new blocks.

 

Proof of Work (PoW).:
Proof-of-Work (PoW) system (or protocol, or function) is a consensus mechanism.It allows to deter denial of service attacks and other service abuses such as spam on a network by requiring some work from the service requester, usually meaning processing time by a computer.

 

Pump and Dump.:
A form of market 
manipulation where traders artificially inflate the prices of assets, encouraging the general public to buy in, and then selling their positions, causing a price collapse.

 

P2P.:
Peer-to-peer refers to systems that work like an organized collective by allowing each individual to interact directly with the
others. In the case of Bitcoin, the network is built in such a way that each user is broadcasting the transactions of other users.
And, crucially, no bank is required as a third party.

 

Private Key.:
A private key is a secret piece of data that proves your right to spend bitcoins from a specific wallet through a cryptographic
signature. Your private key(s) are stored in your computer if you use a software wallet; they are stored on some remote servers
if you use a web wallet. Private keys must never be revealed as they allow you to spend bitcoins for their respective Bitcoin wallet.

 

Pubkey Script.:
A script included in outputs which sets the conditions that must be fulfilled for those satoshis to be spent.
Data for fulfilling the conditions can be provided in a signature script. Pubkey Scripts are called a scriptPubKey in code.

 

Rekt.:
In the world of blockchain and cryptocurrencies, 
rekt is used to describe a severe financial loss, caused by a bad trade or investment.

 

Return on Investment (ROI).:
A measure used in order to assess the efficiency of an investment. The ratio between net profit and net cost.

 

Safu.:
Is the 
‘’Secure Asset Fund for Users’’ is an emergency insurance fund.

 

Satoshi.:
The smallest unit of bitcoin possible. There are 100 million satoshis in a single bitcoin.

 

Scam.:
‘Scam’ is a fraudulent scheme that is performed by a dishonest individual, group or company. The goal is to get money or something else of interest like personal information or in the case of cryptocurrency the ‘private key’. briefly; thief

 

Shitcoin.:
A Shitcoin is any coin, which is badly rated by the one who talks about it. The reason given could be a lack of innovation, poor communication, slow development or another coin is considerably better according to that person.

 

Smart Contract.:
A smart contract is a piece of computer software that is designed as an automated self-enforcing contract, which means it triggers certain action after predetermined conditions are met. 
Smart contracts can be used, for instance, as digital agreements that intermediate the exchange of cryptocurrencies (or any other digital asset) between two parties. Once the terms of the agreement have been set, the smart contract verifies their fulfillment and the assets are distributed in accordance.
Another area in which smart contracts are suitable is the financial services industry. For instance, the technology may be used to automate the clearing and settlement of trades, the payment of bond coupons, or even the calculation and payout of insurance claims.

 

Stablecoin.:
A stablecoin is a type of cryptocurrency that is designed to maintain a stable market price. Many 
stablecoins have their values fixed by pegging them to the price of another asset. While most of them are pegged to the US dollar, there are stablecoins pegged to the price of other cryptocurrencies, or even commodities, like silver or gold. By being pegged to real-world assets, these coins avoid the wild price swings caused by the high levels of volatility, very common cryptocurrency markets.

 

Sequence Number.:
Part of all transactions. A number intended to allow unconfirmed time-locked transactions to be updated before being finalized;
not currently used except to disable locktime in a transaction.

 

Serialized Block.:
A complete block in its binary format—the same format used to calculate total block byte size; often represented using hexadecimal.

 

Serialized Transaction.:
Complete transactions in their binary format; often represented using hexadecimal.
Sometimes called raw format because of the various Bitcoin Core commands with “raw” in their names.

 

Sighash Single.:
Signature hash type that signs the output corresponding to this input (the one with the same index value),
this input, and any other inputs partially. Allows modification of other outputs and the sequence number of other inputs.

 

Signature Hash.:
A flag to Bitcoin signatures that indicates what parts of the transaction the signature signs.

 

Signature.:
A cryptographic signature is a mathematical mechanism that allows someone to prove ownership.

 

Simplified Payment Verification.:
A method for verifying if particular transactions are included in a block without downloading the entire block.

 

Start String.:
Four defined bytes which start every message in the Bitcoin P2P protocol to allow seeking to the next message.

 

Transaction Fee.:
The 
‘transaction fee’ is the amount that has to be paid to execute transactions on the Blockchain. This fee is usually paid to the ‘Miners’, but sometimes they are burned.There are also a number of cryptocurrencies, where you don’t have to pay a fee.

 

Transaction ID.:
All transactions in the 
Blockchain, such as the amount, the address of the sender and recipient and the date of transfer, are provided with an identification, which is publicly accessible in the ledger of the Blockchain. This is the ‘Transaction ID’.

 

Transaction Malleability.:
The ability of someone to change (mutate) unconfirmed transactions without making them invalid,
which changes the transaction’s txid, making child transactions invalid.

 

Txid.:
An identifier used to uniquely identify a particular transaction; specifically, the sha256d hash of the transaction.

 

User Activated Soft Fork.:
A Soft Fork activated by flag day or node enforcement instead of miner signalling.

 

UTXO.:
An Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) that can be spent as an input in a new transaction.

 

Whitelist.:
A
 “Whitelist” is a list of approved participants, who may participate in an ICO or Pre-ICO. A ‘whitelist’ is not always used, but it is usually used to generate ‘hype’ and exclusivity for the ICO.

 

Whitepaper.:
A
 ‘whitepaper’ is a document that is almost always written for the launch of a new coin by means of an ICO. All aspects of a coin should be explained here: how it is used, for what and sometimes also the price expectation. After the ICO new versions can be released if the situation changes.

 

Wallet Import Format.:
A data interchange format designed to allow exporting and importing a single private key with a flag indicating whether
or not it uses a compressed public key.

 

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