"It is not enough to pray for peace. We must actively work towards it." - Dalai Lama
Seeing the cases of security crises in countries like Iran, Vietnam, Cuba and North Korea, the people around had set a precedent that the country holding Nuclear bombs is immune and does not bear the threat of intrusion. And annually, around the globe, Nations are formulating their defence budgets trillions for the sake of security purposes and to prevent the necessary threat of invasion by other nations. On such a backdrop, there is a going arms race behind the curtains. The advancement of weapons and proliferation has made Disarmament a relevant topic for discussion on today's date, as it has become an alarming situation for the existence of life on the earth.
Regarding the word, Disarmament, People have different views and beliefs associated with it. some of the beliefs are:
- Disarmament follows the principle of equality, thus, it seeks to reduce the military advantage of some nations over others.
- The possession of weapons and military capabilities is considered an agent that can create power imbalances which can cause instability and insecurity.
- It is believed that reducing the number of weapons and military forces can help reduce the risk of armed conflicts and promote stability and cooperation between nations
Disarmament is not an issue of a single state; it is a concern to all the states of the Globe covering the dimension of peace and security. Thus, require Global consent. The United Nations is an international organization established to look after global peace and security, it defines Disarmament as the “Process of reducing or eliminating the military capabilities and armaments of a state or non-state actor”. This definition emphasises the broad range of activities and efforts aimed at reducing the threat of armed conflict and promoting international peace and security.
At the core, the prime focus of Disarmament is Arms:
- Control and Regulate: Activities related to arms like Production, Supply-chain on the system (raw materials supplies, weapons supply, technology transfer), and the international arm trade
- Reduction, Limitation and Elimination: of all weapons like Nuclear, biological, chemical and conventional such as small arms and light weapons
- Promote: Confidence-building, transparency, cooperation, collaboration and international peace and security
Disarmament is the process followed by the consensus of the parties involved. It covers mainly the four prime key factors as mentioned below:
- Reduction in the quantity of the military items
- Formal meeting and treaty to achieve
- Emphasis on weapons and tools
- Body or the groups overseeing the process
EFFORTS FOR DISARMAMENT
Till the first world war, people used to experience conventional weapons fighting, But; World war 1 brought mustard gas to the surface and the Second world war brought the power of the atomic bomb. This caused a rift in the relationship among the winning allies paving the path of the arms race. There was rampant production of nuclear weapons, the world started to feel the threat from it. The merits of atomic energy were that it can be used to generate green energy Thus, to gain the trust of non-holding countries, IAEA was established.
IAEA; International Atomic Energy Agency
It was established in 1957. the main purpose of this organization was to promote the peaceful use of atomic energy and to inhibit the use of atomic energy for any military purpose. At the present day, it has 171 member of nations.
IAEA is constrained to the use dimension of nuclear energy while production remained unchecked. To stop for further proliferation of nuclear weapons within the UN, there was an agreement on the Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, which was opened for ratification in 1968 and was enforced in 1970 it is called NPT (non-proliferation Treaty) consists of 190 members countries at the present time. In addition to this, there formed a group called Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), a group of nuclear suppliers countries that seek to prevent nuclear proliferation by controlling the export of materials, equipment and technology that can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons, established in 1974.
In the 1980s, the USSR was weakened economically and was scumbled under the dominance of The USA. With the end of the cold war in 1990, The USSR was disintegrated into 15 countries along with Russia and Russia presented itself as the representative of the old USSR. The Nuclear capabilities of the old community were handed to Russia.
Coming to 1994, there was an agreement between Russia and the USA on disarmament called the START (Strategic arms reduction treaty), which was signed in 1991 and was enforced in 1994. the aim of the treaty was to reduce and limit the number of nuclear weapons and delivery systems held by both countries. The basic terms of the treaty were:
- 1,600 deployed intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), and heavy (long-range) bombers for each side, including 154 deployed heavy ICBMs
- 6,000 "accountable" warheads on ICBMs, SLBMs, and heavy bombers, of which no more than 4,900 may be on ICBMs and SLBMs, 1,540 on heavy ICBMs, and 1,100 on mobile ICBMs
- Limited ballistic missile throw-weight (lifting power) to 3,600 metric tons on each side
This treaty expired on Dec 5, 2009. The United States and Russia signed another treaty known as NEW START that was signed on 8 April 2010. the treaty was forced on 5 February 2011. The limits of the treaty were
- Deployed missiles and bombers -(700)
- Deployed warheads - (1550)
- Deployed and non-deployed launchers - (800)
On 21 February 2023, Russia pulls back from this treaty.
CTBT-Comprehensive Nuclear test ban treaty, this treaty prohibits the ban of nuclear weapons tests or explosions anywhere in the world. This treaty was opened for signature in 1996 and was signed by 186 countries and ratified by 176 countries. This process was regulated by the office of the united nations for disarmament.
The Russian pullback from the disarmament treaty has made the world once again feel the terror of nuclear explosion. With the suspension, now there won't is any surveillance eyes upon the activities, which means they will be more testing as well as proliferation. As the country holding more than others Russia is in conflict with Ukraine, with time Ukraine is able to attack inside the Russian border which means a security threat to Russia. If nothing works or things go to the wrong side, then those 5955 nuclear heads won't be left as it is now, thus with the tickling sound of the clock we are going near to the explosion of a nuclear bomb. Thus, the world must pressurize the holders not to use and avoid all the situations that make one to use it.