Caliber new weapons

By bammbuss | bammbuss | 5 Oct 2019

At the end of the 70s, Soviet gunsmiths were the first in the world to solve the problem of interspecific unification of small arms within one caliber.
The developed and adopted complex of weapons of caliber 5.45 mm included (and to this day includes):
automatic AK-74 basic version, adopted in 1974 for arming the SA under the index AK-74 (6P20);
-AKS-74 automatic (option with a folding butt for the airborne forces).
To these machines was added the RPK-74 light machine gun.
It should be emphasized that these are essentially the same samples of the “old” Kalashnikov under 7.62 caliber. Unless the AKS-74, unlike the AKMS, has a more convenient and durable folding on the left side metal butt frame type.
And of course, mention should be made of the AKS-74U, which caused so much controversy and rejection among professionals (shortened). This next “new” 5.45 mm Kalashnikov-based assault rifle also appeared in the late 70s, nicknamed indecently, a “bitch”.
My opinion - of course, it would be better to immediately adopt a full-fledged machine gun.
But at the end of the 70s, instead of a submachine gun, for a police officer, VOKhR, etc., they took “shortened Kalashnikov,” or “bitch,” as his specialists called him. For conducting non-military operations in a peaceful city.
To make it clear, so that the police gang or terrorists to neutralize. Demonstrators or football fans disperse, etc. it became much in demand much later, in the 90s. In the early 80s in the USSR they did not know about this.
In the army, the AKSU were planned for use by drivers, tankmen, pilots, sappers, and so on. Just so that they have powerful small-sized weapons available just in case of fire. As a result, this "masterpiece" was generally discontinued in 1994.
In the 90s, developed and adopted the normal submachine guns "Klin", "Cedar", and TP (PP-19 ... 21 if correct). And of course, under the caliber 7.62 or even under the "Makarov" cartridge 9 mm.
Distracting from the topic. In my opinion, this unconditional contrived prerogative of Kalashnikov over the weapons of other designers has done great harm to Russian weapons. This notorious saving “on the interchangeability of parts” and TPs “did not allow” (and even now they do not allow) models exceeding Kalashnikov in the army and on the world market.
Kalashnikov, of course, is a good assault rifle. But it’s known that when switching from caliber 7.62 to 5.45, the best results were shown by Konstantinov’s assault rifle, not Kalashnikov’s. But alas, the best was rejected for the sake of “interchangeability” and lower prices. Who knows, if they immediately accepted the best and modernized it over time, perhaps the Russian army would now have advanced and modern small arms?
The same Israeli Galil or “Jewish Kalashnikov” in my opinion is already more attractive relative to the Russian AK in terms of price-quality ratio. Moreover, “Galil” is almost as “tenacious” and unpretentious as Kalash. And he is undoubtedly more modern and weighted, "tricked out". Here you have the Picatinny rail, and the telescopic butt, and plastic, and this is all in the basic configuration and for relatively little money.
About the best flat trajectory and an increase in the range of a direct shot of a 5.45 bullet ... leave to judge the ballistics. I can only say that in practice this factor is not of great importance.
In the course of Chechen companies, the militants clearly preferred to use 7.62 for fighting in Grozny. Such was the choice made according to the results of the experience gained precisely in urban battles. Many feds (opponents of militants at that time), from their own experience, also began to respect the caliber of 7.62 mm.
Two advantages of the 7.62 to 5.45 bullet appeared here: a high stopping effect and a smaller rebound.
The stopping effect of the bullet is 7.62 higher than that of 5.45. Because the cartridge is more powerful, the bullet is heavier in weight, the charge of "gunpowder" is larger.
Reducing the caliber to 5.45 mm reduced the stability of the bullet on the trajectory. It also reduced the breakdown effect due to the lower kinetic energy of the light bullet. A 7.62 caliber bullet ricochets less from random obstacles (from the same ground) and this is a fact.
Military surgeons prefer (if I may say so) to deal with wounds inflicted by a 7.62 caliber bullet. Because these wounds are easier to “treat”, since a heavy bullet breaks off a piece of bone without crushing it, and leaves an even wound channel. The fact that the 5.45 bullet is necessarily “somersaulting in the body” is not a fact. In practice, the 5.45 bullet may well directly pass through the body (leaving a direct wound channel behind it).
Well, finally, I will say the main argument in favor of 5.45, this is the lower weight of a portable ammunition. The ammunition load for the AK-74 5.45 mm machine gun is 450 rounds. For AKMS, 7.62 mm was - 300 pat. The increase in Bq was due to a corresponding decrease in the weight of the cartridge - i.e. 450 5.45x39 rounds weigh as much as 300 7.62x39 rounds.
By the way, the long-suffering Russian special forces were again “lucky." For him, approved double ammunition, i.e. 900 rounds. The weight of the ammunition 5.45x39 is 10.2 kg, and 7.62x39 is already 16.2 kg. as they say, feel the difference. Moreover, in a situation where special forces are at least

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