Mass Extinction can be defined as a time period in which large species go extinct i.e. no more reproduction.
Interaction between human and environment has been a long debate from ancient times. Some humans clan/tribe prefer to be Live as Natural life i.e without interfering to environment. Primitive people still worship Trees, Forest, Animals so that environment could protect them (it's there belief or tradition that recognize environment as God rather than belief on Stone or Invisible Entity.) One can easily find such a tribes in African or Asian continent. This was creating balance between humans and environment and whatever kind of event occurs, it was supposed to be Natural.
But in today's industrial era, this bio-balance between two entity has greatly impacted and causing so called human civilization at a risk of endangered. If not gets attention early or not prepared, it is inevitable that human survival will be critical.
Previous 5 mass extinction had already occur on Earth. I will briefly enumerate here:
- First:-This was the first extinction period when human life wasn't evolved yet on Earth. This period recognized for 85% species were extincted or eliminated on earth. Reason was continental drift i.e. earth has major tectonic plates and that plates were drifting towards each other. (Reason: Natural)
- Second:- This extinction period recognized for lack of oxygen on the earth to survive species. So, nearly 80% species wipe out from earth. Reason: Natural as human life wasn't still developed yet.
- Third:- This extinction period also known as 'Great Dying' as it extincted around 96% species on the earth. It is estimated this could cause due to Asteroid stokes or Volcanic Activity. Reason: Natural
- Fourth:- This period recognized for Dinosaur extinction on earth as the earth's Ph value and sea levels were changing drastically. Around 50% species were extincted on earth but this period greatly impacted for evolution of small vertebrate animals. Later, it helps to evolve human and other related species. Reason: Natural.
- Fifth:- This is also known as 'K-T' mass extinction as nearly 75% species and remaining Dinosaur were extincted on earth. It is estimated that reason was Extreme Asteroid or Meteoroid impact on earth. Reason: Natural.
Now, Ongoing 6th mass extinction:-
As previous 5 mass extinction recognize for Natural phenomena that occurs on earth but this 6th mass extinction period has a different reason due to human interference on environment. So does this period is most environmental threats to the human civilization itself.
It is estimated that around 510 kingdoms species (like our ancestor Chimpanzee) are in the threat of Extinction. Out of 510, South America (30%), Oceania (21%), Asia (21%) and Africa (21%) are in critically red zone.
Reason: Natural + Artificial (More of Human Cause), Humans population have increase faster as compare to other species in this period . This required more resources for human survival like Energy, Food, Shelter etc. This is accepted as a basic needs. But as human need evolving day by day, more resources are being depleted from earth and at the same time exerting polluting items like CO2, Methane, HFCL etc. Note: All this arises from our comfort life. Example: Fuel, Gases from devices like Refrigerator, Air Conditioner, Vehicles, Fog etc.
All this thing causing catastrophic effect on climate change. So, UNFCC (United Nations Framework for Convention on Climate Change) created global consensus regarding Carbon Offset in 2016, also known as Paris Agreement (More information at: https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement). According to this agreement, Global Warming temperature should be reduce by 1.5 degree Celsius/ 2.7 degree Farahnide. This can save millions of species on earth from endangered/extinction.
What we can do as an Individual:-
- At least recognize that climate change and Global warming is threat to our own survival/existence.
- Reduce waste water. Importance of one drop of water is better realize by those living in dessert/water scarcity zone.
- Imagined, if today every individual plant a tree in memory of her/his life, how will earth look in the next 20 years. So, Plant a tree for the Mother Earth. Don't forget she gave you a precious life which is not possible on other planet.
- Consumed to the proportion of your daily needs. Example: Water, Light, Daily Necessities etc.
- Use Renewable Energy resources. Example: Biogas, Wind Power, Solar Power etc.
- If you want buy appliances, invest them in energy-efficient appliances (Mark as rating system. It is visible on front desk). That saves your electricity bills and environment too.
- Buy LED lights at home. It saves lots of energy.
- Do organic Farming. Now days organic products are in huge demand. That will be cash incentive and less environmental impact.
- Eat less meat or Eat more organic/natural foods.
- Drive Fuel-Efficient vehicle. Example- Hybrid and Fully Electric vehicles.
- Shrink your carbon profile. Yes it is true, as every individual is adding Carbon to the environment. You can offset your carbon by purchasing carbon offset if possible.
- Raise awareness about Climate Change.
- It is estimated that if environmental threat not cure early, Cow will be biggest animal on earth in the next 200 years.
- Participate in UN's Sustainable development Goals (SDG) (more at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_Development_Goals).It has 17 Goals defined to be achieve by 2030.